The interconnectedness of food security, natural resources, peace and conflict is not new to anyone familiar with fragile and conflict-affected states. The question is how to reverse this negative spiral. It is instrumental to focus on the questions of how interventions are interacting with other factors, what negative side effects may appear and how to reduce or, even better, prevent them.
बंगाल के सांस्कृतिक इतिहास में ऐसे अनेक व्यक्ति हुए हैं, जिन्होंने न सिर्फ उस इलाके के, बल्कि पूरे देश की चेतना पर गहरा असर डाला है. महाश्वेता देवी इस सिलसिले का संभवतः अंतिम नाम है.
A People’s History of the World is a fascinating and comprehensive analysis by a well-known British historian, Chris Harman, that traces earliest human history to the Roman Empire, from the Middle Ages to the Age of Enlightenment, from the industrial Revolution to the end of the Millennium. Focusing on the development of technology, its impact on the society and conflict, he dwelt on how the society has changed and developed, what possibilities are for further radical change in the 21st century.
We shall fight, comrade, for the unhappy times
We shall fight, comrade, for the bottled-up desires
We shall gather up, comrade, the fragments of our lives
India failed to do even what a small country like Nicaragua did in the Paris Climate Conference by raising its flag questioning the autocratic change introduced in the final draft at the last moment (from ‘shall’ to ‘should’ ) while adopting the 12 page long Paris Agreement dated 12th December, 2015. The Agreement being a legal text required application of basic legal knowledge by India. In law schools across the globe students are taught that “shall” is “mandatory”. The drafters of legal documents are trained into the use of “shall” as it conveys “a duty to” be performed. It conveys obligation. Had “shall” been not important 76 pages of Words and Phrases, a multi volume work of legal definitions would not have been devoted to case laws around it. The word “should” does not express a legal obligation, the word “shall” expresses a legal requirement.
Whether the waters in South Asia can be characterized by ‘shared commonalities’ or whether transnational consensus must precede localized or unilateral policy interventions do not constitute the primary axis of the debate. The developmental discourse in this regard seems to have perpetuity, at least in terms of policy mindsets, which transcends boundaries and reduces the issue to usage of water for so-called ‘national’ purposes and considers the deleterious effects as being the sine qua non of development. Additionally, policy interventions in water are paradigmatically ‘statist’, ‘top-bottom’ and non-participatory having scant regard for complex issues such as loss of culture and livelihoods.
If the short-term future lies with the Asia; long-term growth and development is bound to depend on the African continent. This potential region has the capacity to support the juggernaut of Asian progress. India, having this context into consideration, rightly made a move to extend cooperation toward Africa through the Indo-Africa Forum, a well thought-out program and diplomatic move, to establish better understanding with the second most populous region on this planet.
While asbestos mining is technically banned in the country, in a shocking case of inconsistency India continues to import asbestos from asbestos producing countries like Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Zimbabwe.
While the tourists complained about the stretch on their way to Yumthang and Zero Point, I got off the vehicle to take a lazy stroll. The signs of the havoc lay barren under the open sky like a war-ridden landscape after the rage.
As the Democratic Party President of the United States, the mother of all democracies on the Earth, did you ever ask your Indian and American colleagues why the whole discussion, decision-making and the signing of the MOU was kept a secret and not shared with the people of India or the United States?